• Bryant, I. D. (1982). Loess desposits in lower Adventdalen, Spitsbergen. Polar Research, 2, 93-103
  • Fookes, P. G. (1999). Some aspects of the geology of Svalbard. Geology Today, 24 (4), 146-152
  • Forman, S. L., Mann, D. H. and Miller, G. H. (1987). Late Weichselian and Holocene Relative Sea-level History of Bröggerhalvöya, Spitsbergen. Quaternary Research, 27, 41-50
  • French, H. M. and Lewkowicz, A. G. (1981): Periglacial slopewash investigations, Banks Island, western Arctic. Biuletyn Peryglacjalny, 28, 33-47
  • Geological map of Svalbard 1:500 000 (1991). Norsk Polarinstitutt
  • Haldorsen, S. and Heim, M. (1996). Subpermafrost Groundwater, Western Svalbard. Nordic Hydrology, 27, 57-68
  • Hequette, A. (1987). Holocene vertical shoreline displacement in the northwest Spitsbergen , Svalbard : new interpretation. The example of Brøggerhalvøya. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr., 41, 91-100
  • Humlum, O. (1996). Origin of Rock Glaciers: Observations from Mellemfjord, Disko Island, Central West Greenland. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 7, 361-380
  • Humlum, O. (1998). The Climatic Significance of Rock Glaciers. Permafrost Periglac. Process, 9, 375-395
  • Humlum, O., Instanes, A., Sollid, J. L. (2003). Permafrost in Svalbard: a review of research history, climatic background and engineering challenges. Polar Research, 22(2), 191-215
  • Isaksen, K., Holmlund, P., Sollid, J. L. and Harris, C. (2001). Three Deep Alpine-Permafrost Boreholes in Svalbard and Scandinavia. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 12, 13-25
  • Janke, J. and Frauenfelder, R. (2007). The relationship between rock glacier and contributing area parameters in the Front Rage on Colorado. J. Quaternary Sci., 23, 152-163. ISSN 0267-8179
  • Kääb, A. and Weber, M. (2004). Development of Transverse Ridges on Rock Glaciers: Field Measurements and Laboratory Experiments. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 15 (4), 379-391
  • Möller P., Stubdrup, O. P. and Kronborg, C. (1995). Late Weichselian to early Holocene sedimentation in a steep fjord/valley setting, Visdalen, Edgeoya, eastern Svalbard: glacial deposits, alluvial/colluvian-fan deltas abd spit-platforms. Polar Research, 14 (2), 181-203
  • Mangerud, J., Bolstad, M., Elgersma, A., Helliksen, D., Landvik, J., Lonne, I., Lycke, A., Salvigsen, O., Sandahl, T. and Svendsen, J. (1992). Quaternary Research, 38, 1-31
  • Mitchell, B. J., Bungum, H., Chan, W. W. and Mitchell, P. B. (1990). Seismicity and present-day tectonics of the Svalbard region. Geophys. J. Int., 102, 139-149
  • Mueller, K. (1997). Oberflächenstrukturen und Eigenschaften von Permafrostböden im nordsibirischen Lena-Delta. Z. Pflanzenernaehr. Bodenkd., 160, 497-503
  • Nagel, G. (1974). Periglaziale Talentwicklung im zentralen Westspitzbergen. Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart, 25, 209
  • Rapp, A. and Rudberg, S. (1964). Studies on periglacial phenomena in Scandinavia 1960-1963. Biuletyn Peryglacjalny, 14, 75-89
  • Rudberg, S. (1962). A report on some field observations concerning periglacial geomorphology and mass movement on slopes in Sweden. Biuletyn Peryglacjalny, 11, 311-323
  • Salvigsen, O. (1979). The last deglaciation of Svalbard. Boreas, 8, 229-231
  • Staeblein, G. (1970). Untersuchung der Auftauschichten über Dauerfrost in Spitzbergen. Eiszeitalter u. Gegenwart, 21, 47-57
  • Steele, A. and Amundsen, H.E.F. (2007). Arctic Mars Analogue Svalbard Expedition 2007. 38th Lunar and Planetary Science
  • Steele, A., Amundsen, H.E.F., Conrad, P.G., Benning, L. and Fogel, M., on Behalf of the AMASE 07 team (2008). Arctic Mars Analogue Svalbard Expedition. 39th Lunar and Planetary Science
  • Svendsen, J. I. and Mangerud, J. (1997). Holocene glacial and climatic variations on Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The Holocene, 7,1 , 45-57
  • Yoshikawa, K. (2000). Contraction Cracking and Ice Wedge Polygons in Mars. Second International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration, abstract 4045



  • Liestol, O. (1977). Pingos, springs and permafrost in Spitsbergen. Norsk Polarinstitutt, 7-29
  • Liestol, O. (1996). Open-system pingos in Spitsbergen Norsk geogr. Tidsskr., 50, 81-84
  • Yoshikawa, K (1993). Notes on Open-System Pingo Ice, Adventdalen, Spitsbergen. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 4, 327-334
  • Yoshikawa, K. (1995). Observations on Nearshore Pingo Growth, Adventdalen, Spitsbergen. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 6, 361-372
  • Yoshikawa, K. (2008). Stable Isotope Composition of Ice in Seasonally and Perennially Frozen Mounds. Ninth International Conference On Permafrost, 1997-2002


Polygons & Patterned Ground

  • Christiansen, H. H. (2005). Thermal regime of ice-wedge cracking in Adventdalen, Svalbard. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 16, 87-98
  • Etzelmueller, B. and Sollid, J.L. (1991). The role of weathering and pedological processes for the development of sorted circles on Kvadehuksletta, Svalbard – a hort report. Polar Research, 9, 181-191
  • Dabski, M. (2005). Small-scale Sorted Nets on Glacial Till, Fláaajökull (Southeast Iceland) and Elisbreen (Northwest Spitsbergen). Permafrost Periglac. Process., 16, 205-310
  • Furrer, G. (1959). Untersuchungen am subnivalen Formenschatz in Spitzbergen und in den Bündner Alpen. Geographica Helvetica, 14, 277-309
  • Hallet, B. and Prestrud, S. (1986). Dynamics of Periglacial Sorted Circles in Western Spitsbergen. Quaternary Research, 26, 81-99
  • Matsuoka N. (1999). Monitoring of thermal contraction cracking at an ice wedge site, central Spitzbergen. Polar Geosci.,12, 258-271
  • Matsuoka, N. and Christiansen, H. H. (2008). Ice Wedge Polygon Dynamics in Svalbard: High-Resolution Monitoring by Multiple Techniques. Ninth International Conference On Permafrost, 1149-1154
  • Sorbel, A. and Tolgensbakk, J. (2002) Ice-wedge polygons and solifluction in the Adventdalen area, Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr., 56, 62-66
  • Watanabe, T. (2008). Distribution and Structure of Ice and Soil Wedges in Svalbard, Sounded with the Ground-Penetrating Radar. University of Tsukuba
  • Watanabe, T., Matsuoka, N., Christiansen, H. H. and Ikeda A. (2008). Sounding Ice and Soil Wedge Structures with Ground-Penetrating Radar. Ninth International Conference On Permafrost, 1933-1938


Rock Glaciers

  • Berthling, I. and Etzemüller, B. (2007). Holocene rockwall retreat and the estimation of rock glacier age, Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard. Geogr. Ann., 89, 83-93
  • Berthling, I., Etzemüller, B., Eiken, T., Sollid, J. L. (1998). Rock Glaciers on Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard. I: Internal Structure, Flow Velocity and Morphology. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 9, 135-145
  • Berthling, I., Etzemüller, B., Eiken, T., Sollid, J. L. (2000). Rock Glaciers on Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard. II: GPR soundings and the development of internal structures. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 11, 357-370
  • Degenhardt, J. (2009). Development of tongue-shaped and multilobate rock glaciers in alpine enviroments - Interpretation from ground penetrating radar surveys. Geomorphology, 109, 94-107
  • Farbrot, H., Isaksen, K.,Eiken, T., Kääb, A. and Sollid, J. L. (2005). Composition and internal structures of a rock glacier on the strandflat ow western Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, 59, 139-148
  • Humlum, O., Christiansen, H. H. and Juliussen, H. (2007). Avalanche-derived Rock Glaciers in Svalbard. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 18, 75-88
  • Isaksen, K., Ødegård, R.S., Eiken, T. and Sollid, J. L. (2000). Composition, flow and development of two tongue-shaped rock glaciers in the permafrost of Svalbard. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 11, 241-257
  • Lindner, L. and Marks, L. (1985). Types of debris slope accumulations and rock glaciers in South Spitsbergen. Boreas, 14, 139-153
  • Ødegård, R.S., Isaksen, K., Eiken T., and Sollid, J.L. (2003). Terrain Analysis and Surface Velocity Measurement of the Hiorthfjellet Rock Glacier, Svalbard. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 14, 359-365
  • Sollid, J. L. and Sorbel, L. (1992). Rock Glaciers in Svalbard and Norway. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 3, 215-220



  • Bennet, M. R., Hambrey, M. J., Huddart, D. and Ghienne, J. F. (1996). The formation of a geometrical ridge network by the surge-type glacier Kongsvegen, Svalbard. Journal of Quaternay Science, 2, 437-449.
  • Moore, P. Iverson, N. and Cohen, D. (2009). Ice flow across a warm-based/cold-based transition at a glacier margin. Annals of Glaciology, 50, 1-8
  • Ødegård, R. S., Hamran, S.-E., Bø, P. H., Etzelmüller, B., Vatne, G. and Sollid, J. L. (1992). Thermal regime of a vallety glaciers, Erikbreen, northern Spitsbergen, Polar Research, 11, 69-79
  • Sund, M., Eiken, T., Hagen, J. O. and Kääb, A (2009). Svalbard surge dynamics derived from geometric changes. Annals of Glaciology, 50, 50-60
  • Wohlleben, T., Sharp, M. and Bush, A. (2009) Factors influencing the basal temperatur of a High Arctic polythermal glaciers. Annals of Glaciology, 50, 9-16


Groundwaters & Springs

  • Andersen, D., Pollard, W. and McKay, C. (2009) The Perennial Springs of Axel Heiberg Island as an Analogue for Groundwarer Discharge on Mars. Ninth International Conference On Permafrost, 43-48.
  • Jorge-Villar, S., Benning, L., Edwards, H. and AMASE team (2007). Raman and SEM analysis of a biocolonised hot spring travertine terrace in Svalbard, Norway. Geochemical Transactions, 8:8
  • Jamtveit, B., Hammer, Ø, Andersson, C., Dysthe, D. K., Heldmann, J. and Fogel, M. L. (2006). Travertines from the Troll thermal springs, Svalbard. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr., 86, 387-395
  • Haldorsen, S. and Heim, M. (1999). An Arctic Groundwater System and its Dependence upon Climatic Change: An Example from Svalbard. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 10, 137-149
  • Pollard, W. (2005). Icing Processes Associated with High Arctic Perennial Springs, Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada. Permafrost Periglac. Process., 16, 51-68


Landslides Mass Movement

  • André, M.-F. (1986). Dating slope deposits and estimating rates of rock wall retreat in Northwest Spitsbergen by lichenometry. Geogr. Ann., 68 A, 65-75
  • André, M.-F. (1996). Geological control of slope processes in northwest Spitsbergen. Norsk. geogt. Tidsskr., 50, 37-40
  • André, M.-F. (1997). Holocene rockwall retreat in Svalbard: a triple-rate evolution. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 22, 423-440
  • Büdel, J. (1968). Hang- und Talbildung in Südost-Spitzbergen. Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart, 19, 240-243
  • Berthling, I. and Etzemüller, B. (2007). Holocene rockwall retreat and the estimation of rock glacier age, Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard. Geogr. Ann., 89, 83-93
  • Carlsson, E., Johansson, H., Johnsson, A., Heldmann, J. L., McKay, C. P., Olvmo, M., Fredriksson, S. and Schmidt, H. T. (2008). An evaluation of models for martian gully formation using remote sensing and in Situ measurements of Svalbard analogs. 39th Lunar and Planetary Science
  • Haeberli, W. (1996). On the morphodynamics of ice/debris-transport systems in cold mountain areas. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr., 50, 3-9
  • Harris, C. (1973). Some factors affecting the rates and processes of periglacial mass movements. Geogr. Ann., 55, 24-28
  • Jahn, A. (1967). Some features of mass movement on Spitsbergen slopes. Geogr. Ann., 49, 213-225
  • Matsuoka, N. and Hirakawa, K. (2000). Solifluction resulting from one-sided and two-sided freezing: Field data from Svalbard. Polar Geosci., 13, 187-201
  • Mercier, D. (2001). Runoff processes in Spitsbergen. The polar world faces climatic changes. Geomorphology, 49, 173-175
  • Putkonen, J., Rosales, M., Turpen, N., Morgan, D., Balco, G. and Donaldson, M. (2007). Regolith transport in the Dry Vallets of Antarctica. USGS OF-2007-1047, Short Research Paper, 103, 5p.
  • Rapp, A. (1992). Frequency and Importance of major debris-flows in arctic and other mountains. Bull. Assoc. Geogr. Franc., 3, 249-252
  • Rapp, A. and Nyberg, R. (1988). Mass movements, nivations processes and climatic fluctuations in northern Scandinavian mountains. Norsk. geogr. Tidsskr., 42, 245-253
  • Sawagaki, T. and Koaze, T (1996). Landslides and relict ice margin landforms in Adventdalen, central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Polar Research, 15, 139-152


Active Layer

  • Christiansen, H. H., Humlum, O. (2008). Interannual Variations in Active Layer Thickness in Svalbard. 9th International Conference on Permafrost, 257-262
  • Herz, K. and Andreas, G. (1966). Untersuchungen zur Ökologie der periglazialen Auftauschicht im Kongsfjordgebiet (Westspitzbergen). Pet. Mitt., 110 (4), 260-272
  • Herz, K. and Andreas, G. (1966). Untersuchungen zur Morphologie der periglazialen Auftauschicht im Kongsfjordgebiet (Westspitzbergen). Pet. Mitt., 110 (3), 190-198
  • Overduin, P. P., Kane, D. L. and van Loon, W. K. P. (2006). Measuring thermal conductivity in freezing and thawing soil using the soil temperature reponse to heating. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 45, 8-22
  • Stäblein, G. (1970). Untersuchung der Auftauschicht über Dauerfrost in Spitsbergen. Eiszeitalter u. Gegenwart, 21, 47-57

Last update: 20/05/2010 14:18